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Glossary for Urinary tract infections

  • AIDS: A term given to HIV patients who have a low CD4 count (below 200) which means that they have low levels of a type of immune cell called T-cells. AIDS patients tend to develop opportunistic infections and cancers. Opportunistic infections are infections that would not normally affect a person with a healthy immune system. The HIV virus is a virus that attacks the body's immune system.
  • Abdominal Pain: A condition which is characterized by the sensation of pain that is located in the abdomen
  • Acute Appendicitis: Infection of the appendix
  • Acute bacterial prostatitis: Bacterial prostatitis is a bacterial inflammation of the prostate gland, in men.
  • Acute erythroleukemia: A rare condition characterized by the presence of abnormal blood cells (erythroblastic precursors) in the bone marrow and blood. The condition is characterized by anemia and generally leads to the development of acute myelogenous leukemia. The acute form has more severe symptoms than the chronic form.
  • Acute urinary conditions: An acute condition that occurs in the urinary system
  • Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency: A rare genetic disorder where an enzyme (2, 8-dihydroxyadenine) deficiency results in urinary tract stone formation.
  • Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease: Severe form of PKD, a genetic kidney disease.
  • Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: Genetic kidney disease causing kidney cysts.
  • BEEC: A rare syndrome characterized by a birth defect where the bladder is inside out and protrudes from the lower abdominal wall. The urethra and genitals are also abnormally formed. The degree of malformation is variable.
  • Bacteriuria: Presence of bacteria in the urine as a result of a bacterial infection in the urinary tract. A small amount of bacteria may produce no symptoms. Large amounts of bacteria usually indicate a urinary tract infection.
  • Benazepril Hydrochloride -- Teratogenic Agent: Experimental studies on rats indicate that the use of Benazepril Hydrochloride during pregnancy may cause various harmful effects on the fetus. The likelihood and severity of symptoms may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at. The effect on human fetuses has not been conclusively determined.
  • Benign Prostate Hyperplasia: Non-cancerous prostrate enlargement common with aging
  • Bladder Incontinence (Pregnancy): Bladder incontinence that occurs during pregnancy
  • Bladder conditions: Any condition affecting the bladder
  • Bladder diverticulum: A defect where a part of the bladder lining forms a pouch in the muscle wall of the bladder. The defect may be congenital or acquired through conditions such as infection and urinary tract obstruction. The size of the diverticulum will determine the severity of the disorder with mild cases being asymptomatic.
  • Bladder pain: Pain affecting the bladder
  • Campylobacter fetus infection: Campylobacter fetus is a food borne bacterial infection which may vary in severity from mild to severe. The bacteria are opportunistic and mainly affect debilitated patients but can also occur in healthy patients. Abortion due to blood infection in the fetus can occur in pregnant women who become infected. The infection is less likely to cause gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea than other Campylobacter infections but is prone to causing infection in other parts of the body such as the appendix, abdominal cavity, central nervous system (meningitis), gallbladder, urinary tract and blood stream. Cattle and sheep are the main source of this bacteria.
  • Campylobacter jejuni infection: Campylobacter jejuni infection is a common food borne bacterial infection which may vary in severity from mild to severe. Death can occur in severe cases but tends to occur in patients with other existing illnesses such as HIV, cancer or liver disease. The infection can in rare cause infection in other parts of the body such as the appendix, abdominal cavity, central nervous system (meningitis), gallbladder, urinary tract and blood stream. Undercooked chicken is the main source of infection.
  • Chlamydia: Common sexually transmitted disease often without symptoms.
  • Colibacillosis: Infection with a bacteria called Escherichia coli. Infection can cause severe diarrhea or septicemia. The bacteria can also produce toxins which can affect other parts of the body also. Infections can occur anywhere in the world but some developing countries have endemic areas. Transmission can occur contaminated animal products or contact with infected cats and dogs.
  • Congenital megalo-ureter: A birth defect where the ureter is abnormally dilated due to a structural obstruction of the end portion of the ureter.
  • Cystine stone: A stone caused by a defect in cystine metabolism
  • Cystinuria: A rare inherited condition characterized by the abnormal transport of various amino acids (cystine, lysine, arginine, ornithine) resulting in excess amounts in the urinary system where it can form stones.
  • Cystitis: Bladder infection or inflammation
  • Diabetes: Failing or reduced ability of the body to handle sugars.
  • Diseases contagious from sex: Diseases that can be contracted through sexual contact
  • Diseases contagious from vaginal sex: Diseases that can be contracted through the act of vaginal sex
  • Dysuria: Painful urination
  • E-coli food poisoning: Type of bacterial food poisoning
  • Emanuel syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder where a portion of chromosome 11 is translocated with a portion of chromosome 22. The disorder involves a wide range of abnormalities such as kidney, genital and heart abnormalities, mental retardation, small head and failure to thrive.
  • Enalapril -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Enalapril (an ACE inhibitor) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Enlarged prostate: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a noncancerous enlargement of the prostate gland that may restrict the flow of urine from the bladder.
  • Epispadias: Is a congenital abnormality of the location of the opening of the urethra
  • Hinman syndrome: A bladder condition where the bladder is emptied infrequently due to voiding problems. During voiding, the sphincter muscle is contracted which obstructs the outflow of the urine which can cause enlarged urinary tract and even kidney failure in severe cases. The disorder usually affects children but some cases persist into adulthood where they present with urination difficulty, bladder emptying problems or kidney failure. As urine is frequently retained, bacterial infections are common. The disorder is believed to have psychogenic origins possibly due to fear of punishment if bedwetting occurs or some other sort of stress such as family breakup. Usually the child's initial toilet training is satisfactory.
  • Hypercalciuria, childhood idiopathic: A rare disorder occurring in children for no detectable reason where excess calcium is excreted through the urine resulting in the development of stones in the urinary tract.
  • Hypertension: High blood pressure
  • Inflammatory conditions that may be pathogenic or non-pathogenic: Medical conditions causing inflammation, whether due to a pathogen (e.g. bacteria, virus), or a systemic or other cause.
  • Interstitial cystitis: A rare condition involving inflammatory disease of the bladder which progresses slowly.
  • Intrauterine Growth Retardation: Slowly growing fetus in the womb during pregnancy
  • Kidney conditions: Any condition affecting the kidney organs.
  • Kidney stones: Kidney stones are solid deposits of salts (e.g calcium) from the urine. These deposits can impair the passage of urine that has the potential to result in infection and kidney damage or failure in severe cases.
  • Kidney symptoms: Symptoms affecting one or both kidneys.
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Bacterial respiratory infection
  • Neonatal Jaundice: Common skin yellowing jaundice in newborn babies.
  • Nephritis: Any type of kidney inflammation
  • Nephrocalcinosis: A condition characterized by calcium salt deposits in the kidneys which may affect it's ability to function. The condition refers to a generally increased level of calcium in the kidneys rather than actual localized deposits such as occurs in kidney stones. It may be caused by such things as high blood calcium levels and tuberculosis. The condition often goes unnoticed until kidney or urinary tract stones form.
  • Neurogenic bladder: Problems with the nerves controlling the bladder and urination.
  • Nezelof's syndrome: An immune deficiency disorder where the cells that normally fight infection don't work properly and patients suffer frequent severe infections.
  • Nosocomial infections: Any infection that originates in a hospital
  • Pasteurella multocida: An infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Pasteurella multocida. It is often transmitted through bites and scratches from pets and it can be found in mammals and fowl.
  • Polycystic kidney disease: Genetic kidney disease causing kidney cysts.
  • Polycystic kidney disease, infantile type: Severe form of polycystic kidney disease which is a genetic kidney disease. Symptoms develop very early in life and may even be present during the fetal stage.
  • Possible human carcinogenic exposure -- Medroxyprogesterone acetate: Some evidence indicates that exposure to Medroxyprogesterone acetate has a possible link to an increased risk of developing cancer in humans. The carcinogenicity of the substance may be influenced by the duration and level of exposure.
  • Posterior valve, urethra: A congenital defect where there is an abnormal membrane in the back of the male urethra which affects urine flow. The urine can flow back through the valve and cause problems for organs such as the urethra, bladder, ureters and even the kidneys. The severity of the condition is determined by the severity of the malformation. Severe defects can cause fetal death and mild defects may cause incontinence.
  • Prostatitis: Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate gland, in men.
  • Proteinuria: Protein in the urine
  • Prune belly syndrome: A congenital condition where an infant is born without muscles in the front abdominal wall giving the loose skin a wrinkled, prune-like appearance.
  • Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency: A condition which is characterized by a deficiency of purine nucleoside phosphorylate
  • Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency: A very rare genetic disease involving an enzyme (purine nucleoside phosphorylase - PNP) deficiency which causes a buildup of toxic metabolic products which in turn impairs the development of T-cells (part of the body's immune system). The condition is characterized primarily by frequent infections and various neurological symptoms.
  • Pyelonephritis: Kidney and ureter infection usually bacterial from the bladder.
  • Renal segmental hypoplasia-induced Hypertension: Renal segmental hypoplasia-induced hypertension is high blood pressure resulting from either an abnormally developed kidney (birth defect) or from damage to the kidney resulting from vesicureteral reflux.
  • Senior health conditions: Medical conditions affecting seniors, male or female.
  • Serratia: An infectious disease caused by bacteria from the Serratia genus. The bacteria can cause urinary tract infection, pneumonia, respiratory tract infections, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, septicemia, eye infection, meningitis and wound infections. This type of bacterial infection shows some antibiotic resistance. Symptoms and severity depend on the location and extent of the infection.
  • Small baby: Small size of newborn baby
  • Stenosis: An abnormal narrowing of a duct or canal
  • Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: A bacteria that is usually found in aquatic environments, is not very virulent and rarely infects humans. Most cases of infection tends to occur through use of hospital appliances such as catheters, I.V lines and breathing tubes in immunocompromised people.
  • Tacrolimus -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Tacrolimus during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Trichomoniasis: Sexually transmitted parasitic infection.
  • Tuberculosis: Bacterial infection causing nodules forming, most commonly in the lung.
  • Type 2 diabetes: Most common diabetes in adults, usually progressing slowly, mostly treated without insulin at diagnosis.
  • Urachal cancer: A very rare cancer that occurs in the top of the urinary bladder. The urachus is a tube which joins the belly button to the top of the bladder. After birth, this tube gradually disappears and the amount remaining varies from person to person.
  • Urachal cyst: A cyst which occurs in the remnants between the umbilicus and bladder
  • Urethral obstruction sequence: A condition which is characterised by the early obstruction of the urethra.
  • Urethral pain: The occurrence of pain which is located in the urethra
  • Urethritis: Inflammation of the urethra
  • Urinary burning: Burning type of urinary pain or burning during urination
  • Urinary disorders: Any disorder that affects the urinary system
  • Urinary frequency: Urinary frequency refers to urinating more often than is normal.
  • Urinary pain: Pain in any part of the urinary system.
  • Urinary stones: Stones in the urinary tract or bladder.
  • Urinary system conditions: Medical conditions affecting urination, urinary organs or the urinary system.
  • Urinary tract infections: Infection of the urinary system; usually bacterial.
  • Urinary tract infections (child): Infection of the urinary system in children.
  • Urinary urgency: Excessive or frequent urges to urinate
  • Urine retention: Partial or total inability to excrete urine
  • Urofacial syndrome: A very rare inherited disorder characterized by an unusual face and abnormalities in organs involved with urination.
  • Vasotec -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Vasotec (an ACE inhibitor) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Vesicoureteral reflux: Reverse flow of urine from bladder back into kidneys.
  • Vesicovaginal fistula: A condition which is characterized by the formation of a fistula which communicates from an internal organ to the vagina
  • Vitamin A deficiency: Dietary deficiency of vitamin A
  • X-linked alpha thalassemia mental retardation syndrome (ATR-X): An x-linked condition that features mental retardation, dysmorphic features, and alpha thalassemia
  • Xanthine oxydase deficiency: The deficiency of an enzyme that is involved in the degradation of purine
  • Xanthinuria: A hereditary condition that is characterised by a disorder of purine metabolism

 

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