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Diseases » Viral diseases » Glossary
 

Glossary for Viral diseases

  • AIDS: A term given to HIV patients who have a low CD4 count (below 200) which means that they have low levels of a type of immune cell called T-cells. AIDS patients tend to develop opportunistic infections and cancers. Opportunistic infections are infections that would not normally affect a person with a healthy immune system. The HIV virus is a virus that attacks the body's immune system.
  • AIDS Dementia Complex: A brain disorder that occurs in AIDS patients.
  • AIDS dysmorphic syndrome: A rare syndrome involving craniofacial anomalies and developmental delay that occurs in infants infected with AIDS during the fetal stage.
  • AIDS wasting syndrome: Loss of body mass (especially the muscles) associated with AIDS.
  • AIDS-Associated Nephropathy: Kidney disease associated with AIDS.
  • AIDS-Related Complex: Patients with only mild symptoms of HIV infections.
  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: A term given to HIV patients who have a low CD4 count (below 200) which means that they have low levels of a type of immune cell called T-cells. AIDS patients tend to develop opportunistic infections and cancers. Opportunistic infections are infections that would not normally affect a person with a healthy immune system. The HIV virus is a virus that attacks the body's immune system.
  • Acute Appendicitis: Infection of the appendix
  • Adenoviridae Infections: Infection with a virus from the Adenoviridae family. The most common sites for infection are membrane linings such as the intestines, respiratory and urinary tract and the eyes. The infection may result in a range of symptoms depending on the particular virus involved. Transmission usually occurs through breathing in the germs or through fecal-oral contact. The infection is contagious.
  • Adenovirus infection in immunocompromised patients: Infection with a virus from the Adenoviridae family that occurs in a patient with a weakened immune system. The infection in these people is serious and can be fatal. The infection may result in a range of symptoms depending on the particular virus involved. Transmission usually occurs through breathing in the germs or through fecal-oral contact.
  • Adenovirus-related Cold: An Adenovirus-related cold is a relatively minor contagious infection of the nose and throat caused by the Adenovirus. Although colds can cause discomfort they are not considered a serious condition.
  • Adenoviruses: Common viruses causing common cold and various other ailments.
  • Aino Virus -- Teratogenic Agent: Experimental studies on chickens indicate that the use of Aino Virus during pregnancy may cause various harmful effects on the fetus. The likelihood and severity of symptoms may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at. The effect on human fetuses has not been conclusively determined.
  • Akabane Virus -- Teratogenic Agent: Experimental studies on cattle indicate that the use of Akabane Virus during pregnancy may cause various harmful effects on the fetus. The likelihood and severity of symptoms may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at. The effect on human fetuses has not been conclusively determined.
  • Allergies: Immune system over-reaction to various substances.
  • American mountain fever: A viral disease transmitted through the bite of ticks (Rocky Mountain wood tick and American dog tick) who are infected with the virus. Because the virus infects blood cells including erythrocytes, transmission can also occur through transfusion with infected blood but this is uncommon. Infection is most common in Canada and parts of western US. The incubation period usually lasts between 3 and 6 days but can be as long as a few weeks. The virus tends to cause to periods of fever each lasting for a few days.
  • Antenatal Epstein-Barr virus infection: Fetal infection with the Epstein-Barr virus is still a relatively unstudied condition and there is still insufficient information to determine whether the virus can be transmitted to the fetus and what effect it has on the fetus.
  • Arbovirosis: An infectious disease caused by an arbovirus. The virus is transmitted by arthropods such as insects and ticks. Examples of arboviruses include Yellow Fever, Japanese encephalitis and tick-borne encephalitis. The symptoms may vary depending on the type of virus involved. The infection can lead to life-threatening brain inflammation.
  • Arbovirus: Any group of viruses transmitted to humans by mosquitoes and ticks
  • Arenavirus: A genus of viruses of the family Arenaviridae
  • Arenaviruses: Rare viral infection usually caught from rodents.
  • Argentinean hemorrhagic fever: An infectious disease caused by the Junin virus. Transmission can occur through contact with infected rodent (usually the corn mouse) urine, feces or saliva. The incubation period lasts from one to two weeks. The disease is most common in rural workers in Argentina.
  • Astrovirus: An RNA virus that may affect the gastrointestinal system
  • Astroviruses:
  • BK virus infection: A type of polyomavirus that infects most people but generally causes no symptoms. However, that virus may be reactivated when a patient receives immunosuppressive therapy following an organ transplant.
  • Bacterial meningitis: Bacterial meningitis is a form of meningitis caused by bacteria that normally lives in the mouth and throat. When the immune system is unable to supress this bacteria, it travels to the cerebrospinal spinal fluid in the brain. From there it affects the membranes surrounding the brain.
  • Barmah Forest virus: Mosquito-borne virus in parts of Australia
  • Bird flu (avian influenza): Bird flu refers to influenza A invection. Influenza A is a viral respiratory infection that can usually occurs in birds (especially poultry) but can be transmitted to humans and cause serious illness. The virus is contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. This frequent mutation means that people need regular vaccinations to ensure they are protected against new strains as they arise.
  • Blueberry muffin syndrome: A manifestation of fetal rubella infection. The newborn has purplish or bluish skin lesions or bumps as well as thrombocytopenia. The skin usually clears within 6 weeks.
  • Bolivian hemorrhagic fever: An infectious disease that occurs in Bolivia and is caused by the Machupo virus. Transmission can occur through contact with infected rodent (Calomys callosus) droppings. The incubation period lasts from one to two weeks.
  • Bornholm disease: Contagious viral infection
  • Bowenoid Papulosis: Benign reddish-brown papules occurring primary in the genetalia believed to be viral in origin.
  • Bunyavirus: Virus of the family bunyaviridae.
  • Bwamba virus: A viral illness caused by a species of bunyavirus and transmitted by mosquitoes. The main symptom is fever and it is often mistaken for malaria. Symptoms generally persist for 5 to 7 days. The virus is most common in East Africa.
  • CMV antenatal infection: A rare condition where a fetus becomes infected with the cytomegalovirus through the mother.
  • California encephalitis: An uncommon mosquito born virus (California encephalitis virus) which can cause brain inflammation in humans. The severity of symptoms is variable. The incubation period can last from a few days to a week. Infants and children tend to be more severely affected than adults who sometimes have no obvious symptoms.
  • Cardiovirus: A viral disease caused by a virus from the Picornaviridae famiy. Any vertebrate can become infected though humans rarely are.
  • Cat scratch disease: An infectious disease transmitted through a cat's bite, scratch or lick and resulting primarily in lymph node pain and swelling. The condition can be mild or severe.
  • Chickenpox: Common viral infection.
  • Chickenpox -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that the development of Chickenpox during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Chikungunya: A rare viral disease usually transmitted by mosquitoes and characterized by fever, rash and severe arthritis.
  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Severe chronic fatigue disorder often following infection.
  • Chronic Hepatitis B: Chronic form of HepB liver infection.
  • Chronic Hepatitis C: Chronic form of Hepatitis C viral liver infection.
  • Cold & Flu:
  • Cold sores: Skin cores on the skin, face, or lips.
  • Colorado tick encephalitis: A viral disease transmitted through the bite of ticks (Rocky Mountain wood tick and American dog tick) who are infected with the virus. Because the virus infects blood cells including erythrocytes, transmission can also occur through transfusion with infected blood but this is uncommon. Infection is most common in Canada and parts of western US. The incubation period usually lasts between 3 and 6 days but can be as long as a few weeks. The virus tends to cause to periods of fever each lasting for a few days.
  • Colorado tick fever: A tickborne condition caused by an arenavirus
  • Common cold: A cold is a relatively minor contagious infection of the nose and throat that can be caused by a number of different viruses (e.g. rhinoviruses, coronaviruses). There are over 200 different viruses that have the potential to cause the common cold. Although colds can cause discomfort they are not considered a serious condition.
  • Conditions involving a pathogen: Medical conditions involving some type of pathogen, such as a virus or bacteria.
  • Condyloma: A type of wart transmitted through direct sexual contact and is caused by the human papilloma virus.
  • Congenital cytomegalovirus: Fetal infection with cytomegalovirus.
  • Congenital herpes simplex: An infant born with a herpes simplex infection transmitted through the mother. The infection may be localized or involve various internal organs and even the central nervous system in which case death can occur.
  • Congenital mumps: Fetal exposure to the mumps virus during pregnancy. From existing evidence, fetal exposure to mumps rarely proves to be a problem although there have been cases of spontaneous abortion and a heart condition called endocardial fibroelastosis. Infection late in the pregnancy can result in the infant contracting mumps.
  • Contagious Ecthyma: A viral skin infection that occurs mainly in sheep and goats but can be transmitted to humans through contact. The virus causes painful skin nodules that occur mainly on the hand.
  • Coronavirus-related Cold: A Coronavirus-related cold is a relatively minor contagious infection of the nose and throat caused by the Coronavirus. Although colds can cause discomfort they are not considered a serious condition. Coronaviruses are a significant cause of common colds in adults.
  • Cowpox: A skin disease caused by the cowpox virus. The virus tends to occur in cows but can be transmitted to humans. Exposure usually occurs when hand-milking infected cows.
  • Coxsackievirus-related Cold: A Coxsackievirus-related cold is a relatively minor contagious infection of the nose and throat caused by the Coxsackievirus. Although colds can cause discomfort they are not considered a serious condition.
  • Craniofacial dysostosis -- arthrogryposis -- progeroid appearence: A very rare syndrome characterized usually caused by fetal exposure to the cytomegalovirus and resulting in features such as short stature, mental retardation, joint movement problems and facial anomalies.
  • Croup: Respiratory infection with a characteristic cough
  • Cytomegalic Inclusion Body Disease: An infection due to cytomegalovirus and marked by nuclear inclusion bodies in enlarged infected cells
  • Cytomegalovirus: A easily transmissible viral infection that is common but generally causes no symptoms except in infants and people with weakened immune systems.
  • Cytomegalovirus -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that the development of Cytomegalovirus during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Cytomegalovirus retinitis: Inflammation of the retina of the eye which can cause blindness. The cytomegalovirus is an easily transmissible viral infection that is common but generally causes no symptoms except in infants and people with weakened immune systems.
  • Defective expression of HLA class 2: An inherited immunodeficiency disorder which reduces the body's ability to fight infection. Lack of treatment can result in infant death from infection.
  • Delayed Viral Syndromes: Syndromes caused by viral infections that are delayed in there appearance
  • Dengue fever: An acute viral disease characterized by fever, rash and myalgia and caused by a flavivirus which is transmitted by mosquitoes.
  • Dengue hemorrhagic fever: Severe complication of dengue
  • Diseases contagious from surfaces: Diseases spread from contact with surfaces
  • Eastern equine encephalitis: Is a mosquito born virus that occurs in the eastern united states and causes disease in humans, horses and some birds
  • Ebola: Dangerous virus mostly found in Africa.
  • Echovirus-related Cold: An Echovirus-related cold is a relatively minor contagious infection of the nose and throat caused by the Echovirus. Although colds can cause discomfort they are not considered a serious condition.
  • Encephalitis: Dangerous infection of the brain
  • Encephalitis, California serogroup viral: A mosquito borne viral illness
  • Enterovirus antenatal infection: Fetal infection with enterovirus. The condition is extremely rare but infection around the time of birth often results in death or paralysis in survivors. The type and severity of symptoms is determined by the exact type of virus involved and at what stage of development the infection occurs.
  • Enterovirus-related Cold: Enterovirus-related cold is a relatively minor contagious infection of the nose and throat caused by the Enterovirus. Although colds can cause discomfort they are not considered a serious condition.
  • Enteroviruses: Viruses affecting the digestive tract.
  • Epstein Barr virus related fibromyalgia: Epstein Barr virus related fibromyalgia refers to fibromyalgia that is associated with infection with the Epstein Barr virus. Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterized mainly by pain mainly in the muscles which involves no associated damage to the tissues.
  • Epstein-Barr virus: Common virus causing mononucleosis
  • Epstein-Barr virus, chronic: A form of human herpes virus that produces persistent symptoms. Most people become infected with the virus at some stage in their life though they usually have few if any symptoms. However, some people develop severe symptoms as a result of an EBV infection.
  • Eye Herpes: Eye infection caused by herpes simplex virus; may result in corneal ulcer
  • Fetal parainfluenza virus type 3: Maternal infection with parainfluenza virus type 3 can cause a serious infection in the fetus and result in hydrocephalus. The risk is greatest during the first half of the pregnancy.
  • Fetal parainfluenza virus type 3 syndrome: Some reports indicate that maternal infection with parainfluenza virus type 3 can cause problems in the fetus during the first half of the pregnancy.
  • Filovirus: A group of viruses that includes Marburg and Ebola
  • Flavivirus: A group B arbovirus that causes disease in humans and animals
  • Flavivirus Infections: Infection with a virus from the Flaviviridae family of viruses. Infections by these pathogens include Dengue fever, Rocio encephalitis, West Nile virus and Japanese encephalitis. Transmission usually occurs through the bite of a mosquito.
  • Flu: Very common viral respiratory infection.
  • Fowl Paralysis: A viral disease that affects poultry - it is very contagious and is a herpes virus. The virus tends to affect the nerves and cause tumors in internal organs. Poultry may be unable to lay eggs or may even die. Young birds are more susceptible than older birds with death most common between the ages of 8 and 20 weeks. The virus may attack the nervous system and result in paralysis or it may attack the visceral system and cause tumors in the internal organs. Some birds may die without any obvious symptoms.
  • Fowl paralyses: A viral disease that affects poultry - it is very contagious and is a herpes virus. The virus tends to affect the nerves and cause tumors in internal organs. Poultry may be unable to lay eggs or may even die. Young birds are more susceptible than older birds with death most common between the ages of 8 and 20 weeks. The virus may attack the nervous system and result in paralysis or it may attack the visceral system and cause tumors in the internal organs. Some birds may die without any obvious symptoms.
  • Gastrointestinal infections related to AIDS: It usually occurs due to decreased immunity.
  • Genital herpes: Sexually transmitted infection of the genital region.
  • Genital wart: Skin warts in the genital regions.
  • Genital warts: Genital warts often from a viral STD.
  • Guanarito virus:
  • H1N1 Flu:
  • HHV-6 encephalitis: A rare condition that usually occurs in immunocompromised people such as those undergoing transplants or HIV patients. The condition causes neurological symptoms.
  • HIV like Severe sore throat: Involvement of the upper respiratory tract.
  • HIV like lymphadenopathy: Painless lymphadenopathy.
  • HIV related skin conditions: Skin conditions which occur in case of HIV due to decreased body immunity.
  • HIV-1, CRF01_AE: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF A/E occurs mainly in Asia and originated in central Africa. It tends to be transmitted mainly through heterosexual contact i.e. infection occurs through mucosal exposure.
  • HIV-1, CRF02_AG: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/G involves both And G subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF A/G occurs mainly in west and central Africas well as Taiwan.
  • HIV-1, CRF04_ cpx: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/B involves both And B subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF_cpx is made up of a combination of subtypes A, G, H, K, and U - (cpx refers to a complex of two or more subtypes). This subtype has been diagnosed in Cyprus and Greece.
  • HIV-1, CRF05_ D/F: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF D/F involves both D and F subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF D/F occurs mainly in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
  • HIV-1, CRF06_cpx: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF06_cpx involves a combination of subtypes A, G, J and K - (cpx refers to a complex of two or more subtypes). This subtype has been diagnosed in Burkina Faso and Mali.
  • HIV-1, CRF07_BC: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF07_BC involves a combination of type B' and C and is extremely rare.
  • HIV-1, CRF08_BC: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF08_BC involves a combination of type B' and C and is extremely rare.
  • HIV-1, CRF11_cpx: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF11_cpx is extremely rare and appears to include a mix of subtypes CRF01 (And E), A, G and J - (cpx refers to a complex of two or more subtypes).
  • HIV-1, CRF12_BF: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF B/F has been diagnosed in Uruguay and Argentina.
  • HIV-1, CRF13_cpx: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF13_cpx involves a combination of subtypes CRF01 (And E), A, G, J and U - (cpx refers to a complex of two or more subtypes).
  • HIV-1, CRF14_BG: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF14_BG involves a combination of subtypes B and G. This subtype has been diagnosed in Spain.
  • HIV-1, CRF15_01B: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF15_01B involves a combination of subtypes CRF01 (And E) and B.
  • HIV-1, CRF16_ A2D: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF16_ A2D involves a combination of subtypes A2 and D. This subtype has been diagnosed in Kenyand South Korea.
  • HIV-1, CRF17_BF: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF17_BF involves a combination of subtypes B and F.
  • HIV-1, CRF18_cpx: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF18_cpx involves a combination of subtypes A, E, F, G, H, K and U - (cpx refers to a complex of two or more subtypes).
  • HIV-1, CRF19_cpx: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF19_cpx involves a combination of subtypes A, E, D and G - (cpx refers to a complex of two or more subtypes).
  • HIV-1, CRF20_BG: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF20_BG involves a combination of subtypes B and G. This subtype has been diagnosed in Cuba.
  • HIV-1, CRF21_A2D: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF21_A2D involves a combination of subtypes A, D and G.
  • HIV-1, CRF22_01A1: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF22_01A1 involves a combination of subtypes CRF01 (And E) and A1.
  • HIV-1, CRF23_BG: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF23_BG involves a combination of subtypes B and G.
  • HIV-1, CRF24_BG: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF24_BG involves a combination of subtypes B and G. This subtype has been diagnosed in Cuba.
  • HIV-1, CRF25_cpx: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF25_cpx involves a combination of subtypes A, G and U - (cpx refers to a complex of two or more subtypes). This subtype has been diagnosed in Cameroon and Saudi Arabia.
  • HIV-1, CRF26_AU: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF26_AU involves a combination of subtypes And U.
  • HIV-1, CRF27_cpx: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF27_cpx involves a combination of subtypes A, E, G, H, J, K and U - (cpx refers to a complex of two or more subtypes). This subtype has been diagnosed in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
  • HIV-1, CRF28_BF: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF28_BF involves a combination of subtypes B and F.
  • HIV-1, CRF29_BF: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF29_BF involves a combination of subtypes B and F.
  • HIV-1, CRF30_0206: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF30_0206 involves a combination of subtypes CRF02 (And G) and CRF06 (A, G, J and K).
  • HIV-1, CRF31_BC: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF31_BC involves a combination of subtypes B and C.
  • HIV-1, CRF32_06A1: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF32_06A1involves a combination of subtypes CRF06 (A, G, J, K) and A1.
  • HIV-1, CRF33_01B: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF33_01B involves a combination of subtypes CRF01 (And E) and B. This subtype has been diagnosed in Malaysia.
  • HIV-1, CRF34_01B: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF34_01B involves a combination of subtypes CRF01 (And E) and B. This subtype has been diagnosed in Thailand.
  • HIV-1, CRF35_AD: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF35_AD involves a combination of subtypes And D. This subtype has been diagnosed in Afghanistan.
  • HIV-1, CRF36_cpx: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF36_cpx involves a combination of subtypes CRF01 (And E), CRF02 (And G) and G - (cpx refers to a complex of two or more subtypes). This subtype has been diagnosed in Cameroon.
  • HIV-1, CRF37_cpx: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF37_cpx involves a combination of subtypes CRF01 (And E), CRF02 (And G) and U - (cpx refers to a complex of two or more subtypes). This subtype has been diagnosed in Cameroon.
  • HIV-1, CRF38_BF: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF38_BF involves a combination of subtypes B and F.
  • HIV-1, CRF39_BF: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF39_BF involves a combination of subtypes B and F. This subtype has been diagnosed in Brazil.
  • HIV-1, CRF40_BF: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF40_BF involves a combination of subtypes B and F. This subtype has been diagnosed in Brazil.
  • HIV-1, CRF41_CD: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF41_CD involves a combination of subtypes C and D.
  • HIV-1, CRF42_BF: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF42_BF involves a combination of subtypes B and F1.
  • HIV-1, CRF43_02G: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype CRF43_02G involves a combination of subtypes CRF02 (And G) and G. This type has been diagnosed in Saudi Arabia.
  • HIV-1A: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype A is most prevalent in West Africa.
  • HIV-1A1: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. HIV-1A1 is a subtype of HIV-1A.
  • HIV-1A2: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. HIV-1A2 is a subtype of HIV-1A.
  • HIV-1A3: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. HIV-1A3 is a subtype of HIV-1A.
  • HIV-1B: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype B is most prevalent in Thailand, Australia, Japan, Europe and America. This subtype tends to be transmitted mainly by homosexual contact and intravenous drug use i.e. infection occurs mainly through blood exposure.
  • HIV-1C: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype C is most prevalent in Nepal, India and Southern and Eastern parts of Africa. This subtype tends to be a more virulent subtype and is transmitted mainly through heterosexual contact i.e. infection occurs through mucosal exposure.
  • HIV-1D: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype D is most prevalent in the Eastern and Central parts of Africa and tends to be a more virulent subtype.
  • HIV-1E: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype E has to date not occurred on its own but has occurred in combination with subtype A in a subtype called CRF A/E. This subtype occurs mainly in Asia and originated in central Africa. It tends to be transmitted mainly through heterosexual contact i.e. infection occurs through mucosal exposure.
  • HIV-1F: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype F is most prevalent in Eastern Europe, South America and Central Africa.
  • HIV-1F1: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. HIV-1F1 is a subtype of HIV-1F.
  • HIV-1F2: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. HIV-1F2 is a subtype of HIV-1F.
  • HIV-1G: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype G is most prevalent in Africa and central parts of Europe. This subtype tends to be a more virulent subtype.
  • HIV-1H: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype H is most prevalent in central parts of Africa.
  • HIV-1J: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype J is most prevalent in central America.
  • HIV-1K: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group M, subtype K is most prevalent in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Cameroon.
  • HIV-1M: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. HIV-1 group M is the most common form of HIV accounting for roughly 90% of cases worldwide.
  • HIV-1N: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group N is very rare and has only been diagnosed in Cameroon.
  • HIV-1O: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-1, Group O is very rare and has only been diagnosed in the western parts of Central Africa. This type is more difficult to diagnose and the standard test kits are not sensitive enough to pick up the virus.
  • HIV-2: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. Group M is further classified into 9 subgroups - A to K and CRFs. CRF's are circulating recombinant forms which are a combination of any two subtypes e.g. CRF A/C involves both And C subtypes. HIV-2 is very rare and is generally only diagnosed in Africa but a number of cases have been diagnosed in the US. HIV-2 is less easily transmitted than HIV-1 and the time between infection and symptoms tends to be longer in HIV-2.
  • HIV-2A: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. HIV-2 has two subtypes - And B and they are found mainly in Western Africa.
  • HIV-2B: HIV is an immune system disease caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Once a person has been diagnosed with AIDS, even if treatment improved their CD4+ T cell count and infections are under control, the person is still considered to have AIDS. HIV is classified into two subtypes - HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is further classified into three groups - Group M, N and O. HIV-2 has two subtypes - And B and they are found mainly in Western Africa.
  • HIV-associated eosinophilic folliculitis: An itchy skin rash that occurs in HIV patients. It appears as little itchy red bumps or pustules that originate in hair follicles. It tends to occur mainly on the upper body.
  • HIV/AIDS: HIV is a sexually transmitted virus and AIDS is the progressive immune failure that HIV causes.
  • HTLV: Virus associated with affecting the immune system.
  • HTLV-1: Virus affecting the immune system and associated with a particular leukemia/lymphoma.
  • HTLV-2: Human T-lymphotrophic virus 2
  • Haenel syndrome: A disorder that occurs in patients in the late stage of neurosyphilis where they feel no pain when pressure is applied to the eye. Neurosyphilis causes damage to the nerves that carry sensory information to the brain.
  • Hand, Foot, & Mouth Disease: Common contagious viral infant or child condition
  • Hand-Foot-Mouth Syndrome: An infectious viral disease caused by the coxsackievirus A. The disease is characterized by the development of blisters in the mouth and on hands and feet. The disease is spread by contact with body fluids from an infected person and the incubation period is 3 - 7 days. The infection is most common in children under the age of ten but can occur in teenagers and sometimes in adults.
  • Hantavirosis: Infection by hantavirus which is a virus from the family Bunyaviridae. Infection generally causes severe febrile illness which can involve bleeding, shock and even death in some cases. The disease is transmitted by infected rodents.
  • Hantavirus: A genus of viruses from the family Bunyaviridae
  • Hemophilus influenzae B: Bacterial respiratory infection with dangerous complications.
  • Hemorragic fever with renal syndrome: A group of infectious diseases that involve bleeding, fever and kidney problems. Examples of viruses that can cause such infectious diseases include Hantan virus, Puumala virus and Seoul virus. Examples of diseases caused by viruses in this group includes epidemic nephritis, Hantaan fever and Songo fever. The virus is usually transmitted to human by rodents or biting insects such as mosquitos. The severity and range of symptoms is determined by the particular virus involved.
  • Hendra Virus: A paramyxoviridae virus that is transmitted from animals to humans from body fluids and excretions
  • Hepadnaviral infection: There are a number of viruses in the Hepadnavirdae family of viruses but only type B can cause infection in the human. It causes hepatitis B infection in humans. The other types of the virus can cause infection in other animals.
  • Hepadnaviruses: There are a number of viruses in the Hepadnavirdae family of viruses but only type B can cause infection in the human. It causes hepatitis B infection in humans. The other types of the virus can cause infection in other animals.
  • Hepadnoavirus infection: There are a number of viruses in the Hepadnavirdae family of viruses but only type B can cause infection in the human. It causes hepatitis B infection in humans. The other types of the virus can cause infection in other animals.
  • Hepatitis A: Contagious viral infection of the liver
  • Hepatitis B: Viral liver infection spread by sex or body fluids.
  • Hepatitis C: Viral liver infection spread by blood.
  • Hepatitis D: Viral liver infection occurring in association with HepB.
  • Hepatitis E: Viral liver infection.
  • Hepatitis G: A type of hepatitis caused by HGV (hepatitis G virus). The condition is usually asymptomatic and causes mild disease in others.
  • Hepatitis Virus -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that the development of the hepatitis virus during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Hepatitis X: Hepatitis infection by an unknown virus not classified as HepA/B/C/D/E.
  • Hepatitis X (non-A,-B,-C,-D,-E): Viral liver inflammation that cannot be determined to be one of the existing types of viral hepatitis - A,B,C,D and E.
  • Herpangina: A condition which is infective and caused by the coxsackie virus
  • Herpes: Virus with one subtype causing cold sores and another causing genital herpes.
  • Herpes simplex encephalitis: A form of encephalitis caused by the herpes simplex virus and characterized by fever, headache and neurological symptoms.
  • Herpes stomatitis: Mouth infection with ulcers/blisters due to the herpes virus
  • Herpes virus antenatal infection: Transmission of the herpes virus from the mother to the baby during the fetal stage.
  • Herpes zoster oticus: Facial and auditory effects of herpes zoster
  • Herpes, Neonatal: Neonatal herpes is the infection of a newborn with the herpes virus within the first six weeks of life. The virus may be transmitted from the mother to the baby while it is still in the uterus or during delivery. The risk of transmitting the virus is highest if genital herpes is contracted during the late stages of the pregnancy. A mother with long standing or recurring herpes infection usually has sufficient antibodies to the virus to prevent the infant becoming infected. Neonatal herpes can also be contracted when an infant comes into contact with an infected person e.g. being kissed by and adult with cold sores. A cesarean birth may be advised for mothers who have active genital lesions.
  • Herpes, Neonatal -- Central Nervous System Infection: Central nervous system herpes infection in neonates is a herpes infection of the central nervous system (brain, spinal cord) that develops in infants within the first six weeks of life. The virus may be transmitted from the mother to the baby while it is still in the uterus or during delivery. The risk of transmitting the virus is highest if genital herpes is contracted during the late stages of the pregnancy. A mother with long standing or recurring herpes infection usually has sufficient antibodies to the virus to prevent the infant becoming infected. Neonatal herpes can also be contracted when an infant comes into contact with an infected person e.g. being kissed by and adult with cold sores. A cesarean birth may be advised for mothers who have active genital lesions. Central nervous system infection will occur in nearly three quarters of infants with a herpes infection.
  • Herpes, Neonatal -- Disseminated: Disseminated neonatal herpes is a widespread infection of a newborn with the herpes virus within the first six weeks of life. The virus may be transmitted from the mother to the baby while it is still in the uterus or during delivery. The risk of transmitting the virus is highest if genital herpes is contracted during the late stages of the pregnancy. A mother with long standing or recurring herpes infection usually has sufficient antibodies to the virus to prevent the infant becoming infected. Neonatal herpes can also be contracted when an infant comes into contact with an infected person e.g. being kissed by and adult with cold sores. A cesarean birth may be advised for mothers who have active genital lesions. Brain infection will occur in over half of infants with the disseminated form.
  • Herpes, Neonatal -- Mucocutaneous and Ocular Infection: Mucocutaneous herpes infection in neonates is a herpes infection of the mucous membranes within the first six weeks of life. The virus may be transmitted from the mother to the baby while it is still in the uterus or during delivery. The risk of transmitting the virus is highest if genital herpes is contracted during the late stages of the pregnancy. A mother with long standing or recurring herpes infection usually has sufficient antibodies to the virus to prevent the infant becoming infected. Neonatal herpes can also be contracted when an infant comes into contact with an infected person e.g. being kissed by and adult with cold sores. A cesarean birth may be advised for mothers who have active genital lesions.
  • Herpesvirus: A group of DNA viruses that occur in humans
  • Herpetic embryopathy: Transmission of the herpes virus from the mother to the baby during the fetal stage.
  • Herpetic keratitis: A corneal inflammation due to a herpes virus - either herpes simplex or herpes zoster virus.
  • Hodgkin's Disease: A form of cancer that affects the lymphatic system.
  • Human Papillomavirus: Very common sexually transmitted disease causing genital warts and associated with certain cancers.
  • Human T Cell Leukemia Virus 1: A type of retrovirus that can infect a type of white blood cell called T cells and result in leukemia. The infection can be spread by sexual contact, breast feeding, transfusions and sharing syringes.
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus type 3: A former name used for HIV which is an infectious viral disease. The infection usually has an initial symptom-free period which is followed by various stages of increasing severity.
  • Human carcinogen -- Chronic Hepatitis B viral infection: Chronic Hepatitis B viral infection is deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. Infection with the virus does not mean the patient will definitely develop cancer but the risk of cancer is increased.
  • Human carcinogen -- Chronic Hepatitis C viral infection: Chronic Hepatitis C viral infection is deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. Infection with the virus does not mean the patient will definitely develop cancer but the risk of cancer is increased.
  • Human carcinogen -- Epstein-Barr Virus: The Epstein-Barr Virus is deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. Infection with the virus does not mean the patient will definitely develop cancer but the risk of cancer is increased.
  • Human carcinogen -- Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 infection: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 infection is deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. Infection with the virus does not mean the patient will definitely develop cancer but the risk of cancer is increased.
  • Human carcinogen -- Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 is deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. Infection with the virus does not mean the patient will definitely develop cancer but the risk of cancer is increased.
  • Human carcinogen -- Infection with Human papillomavirus type 16: Infection with Human papillomavirus type 16 is deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. Infection with the virus does not mean the patient will definitely develop cancer but the risk of cancer is increased.
  • Human carcinogen -- Infection with Human papillomavirus type 18: Infection with Human papillomavirus type 18 is deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. Infection with the virus does not mean the patient will definitely develop cancer but the risk of cancer is increased.
  • Human carcinogen -- Infection with Human papillomavirus type 31: Infection with Human papillomavirus type 31 is deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. Infection with the virus does not mean the patient will definitely develop cancer but the risk of cancer is increased.
  • Human carcinogen -- Infection with Human papillomavirus type 35: Infection with Human papillomavirus type 35 is deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. Infection with the virus does not mean the patient will definitely develop cancer but the risk of cancer is increased.
  • Human carcinogen -- Infection with Human papillomavirus type 39: Infection with Human papillomavirus type 39 is deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. Infection with the virus does not mean the patient will definitely develop cancer but the risk of cancer is increased.
  • Human carcinogen -- Infection with Human papillomavirus type 45: Infection with Human papillomavirus type 45 is deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. Infection with the virus does not mean the patient will definitely develop cancer but the risk of cancer is increased.
  • Human carcinogen -- Infection with Human papillomavirus type 51: Infection with Human papillomavirus type 51 is deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. Infection with the virus does not mean the patient will definitely develop cancer but the risk of cancer is increased.
  • Human carcinogen -- Infection with Human papillomavirus type 52: Infection with Human papillomavirus type 52 is deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. Infection with the virus does not mean the patient will definitely develop cancer but the risk of cancer is increased.
  • Human carcinogen -- Infection with Human papillomavirus type 56: Infection with Human papillomavirus type 56 is deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. Infection with the virus does not mean the patient will definitely develop cancer but the risk of cancer is increased.
  • Human carcinogen -- Infection with Human papillomavirus type 58: Infection with Human papillomavirus type 58 is deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. Infection with the virus does not mean the patient will definitely develop cancer but the risk of cancer is increased.
  • Human carcinogen -- Infection with Human papillomavirus type 59: Infection with Human papillomavirus type 59 is deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. Infection with the virus does not mean the patient will definitely develop cancer but the risk of cancer is increased.
  • Human carcinogen -- Infection with Human papillomavirus type 66: Infection with Human papillomavirus type 66 is deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. Infection with the virus does not mean the patient will definitely develop cancer but the risk of cancer is increased.
  • Human parvovirus B19 infection: An infectious disease caused by parovirus B19 which causes fifth disease and erythema infectiosum.
  • Human parvovirus B19 infection -- fetal: Fetal infection with human parvovirus B19.
  • Human spumaretrovirdae infection: The spuma retrovirus is a member of the retroviruses and can cause infection in humans. There is not a great deal of information on the virus but it has assessed for its association with various conditions such as myasthenia gravis, multiple sclerosis and Graves' disease. However, studies can prove no conclusive disease process resulting from the presence of the spuma retrovirus in humans.
  • Human spumaretrovirus infection: The spuma retrovirus is a member of the retroviruses and can cause infection in humans. There is not a great deal of information on the virus but it has assessed for its association with various conditions such as myasthenia gravis, multiple sclerosis and Graves' disease. However, studies can prove no conclusive disease process resulting from the presence of the spuma retrovirus in humans.
  • Immunosuppressive Measles Encephalitis: A rare complication of the measles virus. Some patients with a history of measles before the age of two develop progressive brain inflammation. The condition is rare and tends to only occur only in immunosuppressed children e.g. those who have acute lymphocytic leukemia. Symptoms may develop suddenly and tends to occur from weeks to months after the measles has resolved.
  • Infant Cytomegalic virus: A serious CMV viral infection in newborns.
  • Influenza A: A type of virus affecting the respiratory tract
  • Influenza B: A type of virus affecting the respiratory tract
  • JC virus infection: A type of polyomavirus that infects most people but generally causes no symptoms. However, that virus generally only becomes symptomatic in immunosuppressed people such as those with AIDS or following organ transplant.
  • Japanese encephalitis: A form of encephalitis caused by a flavivirus (Japanese B encephalitis virus - JBEV) and transmitted by mosquito bites. Most cases are mild and asymptomatic but severe cases can lead to death.
  • Junin virus:
  • Kaposi sarcoma, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated form: A form of cancer caused by a type of herpesvirus that occurs mainly in the skin but may also occur in lymph nodes, internal organs and mucosal areas. The AIDS-associated form is aggressive and tends to occur mainly on the face, genitals and lower extremities with internal organs often being involved as well. Symptoms depend on the extent of internal organ involvement.
  • Ketorolac -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Ketorolac during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Kyasanur-Forrest disease: A viral hemorrhagic fever that is transmitted to humans through tick bites. It is most prevalent in South Asia.
  • Lassa fever: Infectious rat-borne West African disease.
  • Lethargy: feeling of tiredness
  • Lipodystrophy-HIV related: The loss of subcutaneous fat tissue in a patient infected with the HIV virus. The fat loss usually affects the face, extremities and trunk but fat accumulation occurs on the chin, back of neck and in the abdomen.
  • Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis: Rodent-borne viral disease often causing meningitis or encephalitis
  • Lymphoma, AIDS-related: HIV patients face an increased risk of various infections and cancers. AIDS-related lymphoma is lymphoma that occurs in AIDS patients. Lymphomas are white blood cell cancers (white blood cells form part of the body's immune system).
  • Lyssavirus: A group of viruses that infect mammals and arthropods
  • MHC class 1 or class 2 deficiency: An inherited immunodeficiency disorder involving a deficiency of class I and II major histocompatibility complexes. Serious infections can result.
  • Machupo virus: A virus which is the cause of a form of hemorrhagic fever occurring in Bolivia
  • Malaise: General feelings of discomfort or being ill-at-ease.
  • Marburg virus: Serious virus related to Ebola.
  • Mareck's disease -- nervous system: A viral disease that affects poultry - it is very contagious and is a herpes virus. The virus tends to affect the nerves and cause tumors in internal organs. Poultry may be unable to lay eggs or may even die. Young birds are more susceptible than older birds with death most common between the ages of 8 and 20 weeks. The virus may attack the nervous system and result in paralysis or it may attack the visceral system and cause tumors in the internal organs. Some birds may die without any obvious symptoms.
  • Mareck's disease -- visceral: A viral disease that affects poultry - it is very contagious and is a herpes virus. The virus tends to affect the nerves and cause tumors in internal organs. Poultry may be unable to lay eggs or may even die. Young birds are more susceptible than older birds with death most common between the ages of 8 and 20 weeks. The virus may attack the nervous system and result in paralysis or it may attack the visceral system and cause tumors in the internal organs. Some birds may die without any obvious symptoms.
  • Marek disease: A viral disease that affects poultry - it is very contagious and is a herpes virus. The virus tends to affect the nerves and cause tumors in internal organs. Poultry may be unable to lay eggs or may even die. Young birds are more susceptible than older birds with death most common between the ages of 8 and 20 weeks. The virus may attack the nervous system and result in paralysis or it may attack the visceral system and cause tumors in the internal organs. Some birds may die without any obvious symptoms.
  • Marek's disease: A viral disease that affects poultry - it is very contagious and is a herpes virus. The virus tends to affect the nerves and cause tumors in internal organs. Poultry may be unable to lay eggs or may even die. Young birds are more susceptible than older birds with death most common between the ages of 8 and 20 weeks. The virus may attack the nervous system and result in paralysis or it may attack the visceral system and cause tumors in the internal organs. Some birds may die without any obvious symptoms.
  • Mayaro fever: Infection with a type of virus (Mayaro virus) transmitted by mosquito bites. The disease is most common in South America. The incubation period is one to two weeks.
  • Measles: Once common viral infection now rare due to vaccination.
  • Measles Encephalitis in Children with Immunosuppression: A rare complication of the measles virus. Some patients with a history of measles before the age of two develop progressive brain inflammation. The condition is rare and tends to only occur only in immunosuppressed children e.g. those who have acute lymphocytic leukemia. Symptoms may develop suddenly and tends to occur from weeks to months after the measles has resolved.
  • Meningitis: Dangerous infection of the membranes surrounding the brain.
  • Meningococcal disease: Dangerous bacterial infection causing meningitis or bacteremia.
  • Mesenteric Adenitis: Swollen abdominal lymph nodes
  • Metapneumovirus: A type of viral respiratory infection which was first discovered early in the 21st century. The infection tends to occur mainly in children and infants or the elderly. The incubation period is probably less than a week and the virus is transmitted through large droplets or contact with contaminated surface or objects e.g. used tissue. Symptoms are usually mild but may be severe in some cases.
  • Microbes: A pathogenic microorganism
  • Mifepristone -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Mifepristone during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Molluscum contagiosum: Common wart-causing virus.
  • Monkeypox: A condition which is characterized by an epidemic exanthematous disease occurring in monkeys and other mammals with a clinical picture similar to smallpox
  • Mononucleosis: Common infectious virus.
  • Mumps: An acute viral disease that causes the salivary glands to become swollen, sore and inflamed. Immunization had greatly reduced the incidence of this disease.
  • Murray Valley encephalitis: Severe viral form of encephalitis in Australia
  • Neonatal herpes, type 1 virus: A very rare disorder where a newborn becomes infected with the herpes simplex virus usually through contact with a parent during or soon after the birth. The type 1 virus is severe compared to type 2
  • Neurological disorders related to AIDS: It usually occurs due to decreased immunity.
  • Newcastle Disease: A type of virus (paramyxovirus) that can infect many mammals, birds and humans. It most commonly affects poultry. Human infections can cause a mild illness and is generally only seen in poultry workers. There has been growing interest in using this virus to kill cancer cells.
  • Nezelof's syndrome: An immune deficiency disorder where the cells that normally fight infection don't work properly and patients suffer frequent severe infections.
  • Nipah virus encephalitis: Inflammation of the brain caused by the Nipah virus which can infect pigs and humans so transmission usually occurs through contact with pigs.
  • Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: A type of lymphoma, a cancer affecting lymph nodes and the immune system.
  • Non-genetic diseases: Any disease that does not have a genetic component
  • Norwalk gastroenteritis: A viral (Norwalk virus) infection that is transmitted through fecal-oral contact which can happen through eating contaminated food or drinking contaminated water. Symptoms are usually relatively mild. The incubation period is 18-72 hours.
  • Norwalk-like viruses: Several shellfish or oyster-associated gastro-causing viruses related to Norwalk or caliciviruses.
  • Ocular Herpes: Viral infection of the eye from herpes virus.
  • Ocular vaccinia: Ocular vaccinia is a smallpox infection of the eye. The infection usually occurs through eye contact with a hand contaminated with the virus.
  • Omsk hemorrhagic fever: A hemorrhagic fever caused by a virus. A serious outbreak occurred in Omsk and hence the name. Transmission occurs through tick bites. The infection has two phases: the first acute phase involves symptoms such as fever, rash and muscle pain and the second phase occurs after a week or two and involves the central nervous system (e.g. delirium, convulsions).
  • Opportunistic infections related to HIV infection: it usually occurs when the CD4 cell count drops to less than 200cells/mm.
  • Orf: Viral skin infection related to sheep and goats
  • Orthomyxovirus-related Cold: An Orthomyxovirus-related cold is a relatively minor contagious infection of the nose and throat caused by the Orthomyxovirus. Although colds can cause discomfort they are not considered a serious condition.
  • Parainfluenza: Milder influenza-like infection
  • Parainfluenza virus type 1: Parainfluenza is an influenza-like viral disease that can cause croup, upper respiratory tract infection, pneumonia or bronchiolitis. Type 1 virus occurs during autumn every second year and tends to primarily cause croup as well as respiratory tract infection.
  • Parainfluenza virus type 2: Parainfluenza is an influenza-like viral disease that can cause croup, upper respiratory tract infection, pneumonia or bronchiolitis. Type 2 virus occurs during autumn every second year and tends to primarily cause respiratory tract illness but is milder and less frequent than type 1.
  • Parainfluenza virus type 3: Parainfluenza is an influenza-like viral disease that can cause croup, upper respiratory tract infection, pneumonia or bronchiolitis. Type 3 virus occurs during spring and summer in temperate climates but can continue into autumn.
  • Parainfluenza virus type 4: Parainfluenza is an influenza-like viral disease that can cause croup, upper respiratory tract infection, pneumonia or bronchiolitis. Type 4 virus causes mild sporadic illness.
  • Paramyxovirus -related Cold: A Paramyxovirus-related cold is a relatively minor contagious infection of the nose and throat caused by the Paramyxovirus. Although colds can cause discomfort they are not considered a serious condition.
  • Parvovirus: A family of viruses that contain the human parvo virus B19
  • Parvovirus B19 -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that the development of Parvovirus B19 during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Parvovirus antenatal infection: Fetal infection with human parvovirus B19 - serious abnormalities rarely occur.
  • Pediatric AIDS: Pediatric AIDS is an immune system disease in infants or children caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Symptoms in children are similar to those of an adult but their susceptibility to various AIDS-related conditions varies e.g. children are less susceptible to Kaposi sarcoma, taxoplasmosis and cryptococcosis than adults.
  • Persistent parvovirus infection: Symptoms resulting from a persistent parvovirus infection in immunocompromised patients or those who have undergone organ transplant and take anti-rejection drugs. Their immune systems are unable to respond to the virus. The B19 parvovirus mainly attacks immature red blood cells so a persisting infection may lead to severe, chronic anemia.
  • Pharyngoconjunctival fever: An infectious disease usually caused by adenovirus type 3. The infection may be acute, epidemic or sporadic and is more common in children. Infection can be transmitted through swimming pools. The incubation period is 5-9 days.
  • Pityriasis Rosea: Skin inflammation
  • Pneumonia: Infection of the lung by bacteria, viruses or fungus.
  • Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lungs and bronchioles caused by a virus.
  • Polio: Dangerous virus now rare due to vaccination.
  • Polyomavirus Infections: A viral infection that is often acquired during childhood but generally presents no symptoms. However, that virus may be reactivated when a patient receives immunosuppressive therapy following an organ transplant. Most adults have antibodies to the virus in their bodies. The polyomavirus family has two main subgroups: BK virus and JC virus.
  • Polyomavirus allograft nephropathy: An infection with polyomavirus that becomes symptomatic following a kidney transplant. Polyomaviruses is an infection that is often acquired during childhood but generally presents no symptoms. However, that virus may be reactivated when a patient receives immunosuppressive therapy following an organ transplant. Most adults have antibodies to the virus in their bodies. The polyomavirus family has two main subgroups: BK virus and JC virus
  • Possible human carcinogenic exposure -- Human immunodeficiency virus type 2: Some evidence indicates that exposure to Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 has a possible link to an increased risk of developing cancer in humans. The carcinogenicity of the virus may be influenced by the duration of the exposure as well as other individual factors. The virus can be spread through skin contact or during sex. Not everyone who has the virus will develop cancer but having the virus will increase the risk of developing certain cancers.
  • Possible human carcinogenic exposure -- Human papillomavirus genus beta: Some evidence indicates that exposure to Human papillomavirus genus beta has a possible link to an increased risk of developing cancer in humans The carcinogenicity of the virus may be influenced by the duration of the exposure as well as other individual factors. Not everyone who has the virus will develop cancer but having the virus will increase the risk of developing certain cancers.
  • Possible human carcinogenic exposure -- Human papillomavirus types 6 and 11: Some evidence indicates that exposure to Human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 has a possible link to an increased risk of developing cancer in humans. The carcinogenicity of the virus may be influenced by the duration of the exposure as well as other individual factors. The virus can be spread through skin contact or during sex. Not everyone who has the virus will develop cancer but having the virus will increase the risk of developing certain cancers.
  • Post-polio syndrome: A condition where patients who have a history of polio have a reoccurrence of muscle symptoms. The condition usually occurs at least ten years after partial or complete recovery from polio.
  • Post-viral CFS: Post-viral chronic fatigue syndrome is a chronic fatigue condition which may follow severe viral infections. The condition is often debilitating and may be difficult to diagnose due to lack of specific tests for the condition.
  • Postherpetic neuralgia: A condition which is characterized by persistent burning pain and hyperesthesia along the distribution of a cutaneous nerve
  • Poxviridae disease: A group of infectious diseases that cause puss filled skin eruptions. Chicken pox and small pox are examples.
  • Primary Herpes Infection -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that the use of primary Herpes Infection during pregnancy may cause a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Probable human carcinogen -- Human herpesvirus 8: Infection with Human herpesvirus 8 is deemed to have a probable carcinogenic effect on humans. Infection with the virus does not mean the patient will definitely develop cancer but the risk of cancer is increased.
  • Probable human carcinogen -- Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus: Infection with Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus is deemed to have a probable carcinogenic effect on humans. Infection with the virus does not mean the patient will definitely develop cancer but the risk of cancer is increased.
  • Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy: Progressive degenerative condition of the brain.
  • Progressive Rubella Panencephalitis: A very rare complication of rubella infection where neurological symptoms develop following a congenital rubella infection and very rarely with childhood rubella. It is believed that the condition is the result of persistent rubella virus infection.
  • Pulmonary infections related to AIDS: It usually occurs due to decreased immunity.
  • Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency: A condition which is characterized by a deficiency of purine nucleoside phosphorylate
  • Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency: A very rare genetic disease involving an enzyme (purine nucleoside phosphorylase - PNP) deficiency which causes a buildup of toxic metabolic products which in turn impairs the development of T-cells (part of the body's immune system). The condition is characterized primarily by frequent infections and various neurological symptoms.
  • Rabies: An infectious disease that can affect any mammal including humans and is transmitted through the saliva of an infected animal. The infectious agent is the Neurotropic lyssavirus which affects the salivary gland and also causes neurological symptoms.
  • Ramsay Hunt syndrome Type II: A condition caused by a reactivation of the herpes simplex virus and resulting in facial paralysis, ear pain and skin blistering.
  • Reovirus infection: An infectious disease caused by a virus from the Reovirdae family. Infection in humans is usually asymptomatic or produces only mild symptoms.
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: A very contagious viral infection that causes respiratory diseases. It generally only causes common cold-like symptoms in adults but can be serious in young children, infants, the elderly and people with a weakened immune system.
  • Respiratory syncytial virus: Viral respiratory infection serious in young infants.
  • Respiratory syncytial virus-related Cold: A Respiratory syncytial virus-related cold is a relatively minor contagious infection of the nose and throat caused by the Respiratory syncytial virus. Although colds can cause discomfort they are not considered a serious condition.
  • Rhinovirus: A class of viruses commonly causing the common cold.
  • Rhinovirus infection: Infection with the rhinovirus which can be transmitted through direct contact with contaminated secretions from an infected person (e.g. sneezing or nasal or oral secretions on hands). The rhinovirus can cause the common cold and pharyngitis.
  • Rhinovirus-related Cold: A Rhinovirus-related cold is a relatively minor contagious infection of the nose and throat caused by the Rhinovirus. Although colds can cause discomfort they are not considered a serious condition. About a third of all common colds in adults are caused by one of the rhinoviruses.
  • Rift Valley Fever: Mosquito-borne viral infection affecting animals and humans
  • Rocio encephalitis: Inflammation of the brain caused by a flavivirus called Rocio virus. It occurs in south-eastern Brazil with transmission occurring through mosquito bites. The incubation period is 1-2 weeks. Death is not an uncommon outcome.
  • Roseola infantum: Contagious infant conditions
  • Ross River virus: Mosquito-borne virus in parts of Australia and other countries
  • Rotavirus: Diarrhea-causing virus in infants.
  • Rubella: A contagious viral infection caused by the Rubella virus which produces a rash and lymph node swelling. It can have serious implication in pregnant women as the virus can be transmitted through the placenta and cause serious fetal defects or even fetal death.
  • Rubella congenital syndrome: The transplacental infection of a fetus with rubella
  • Rubella panencephalitis: A very rare complication of rubella infection where neurological symptoms develop following a congenital rubella infection and very rarely with childhood rubella. It is believed that the condition is the result of persistent rubella virus infection.
  • Rubella virus antenatal infection: A rare disorder caused by exposure of the fetus to maternal rubella and resulting in a range of abnormalities and fetal death is also possible.
  • SARS: Serious respiratory infection
  • Sabia virus: An arbovirus causing fever, rashes and hemorrhagic bleeding
  • Sandfly fever: Viral infection from sandfly bites
  • Shingles: Infectious viral infection occuring years after chickenpox infection.
  • Simian B virus infection: A type of herpesvirus which occurs in monkeys but can be transmitted to humans through bites or through contact with infected monkey tissue as in a laboratory situation. The virus infects the brain (encephalitis) and the surrounding membrane (meningitis).
  • Sindbis fever: Infection with a type of alphavirus which is transmitted by mosquitoes. The disease is usually mild and resolves spontaneously.
  • Skin Diseases, Viral: Any condition affecting the skin and caused by a virus. There is a range of viruses that can affect the skin in a number of ways Epstein-Barr, Fifth disease, viral warts, shingles, measles and herpes.
  • Slap-cheek syndrome: Viral infection where children get rosy cheeks.
  • Smallpox: Dangerous virus now almost eliminated worldwide by vaccination.
  • St. Louis encephalitis: Mosquito-borne type of brain infection (encephalitis)
  • Strep throat: Streptococcal bacterial throat infection.
  • Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: A progressive neurological disorder involving inflammation of the brain caused by a complication of the measles virus. It can occur up to 10 years after the initial measles virus and may be due to a defective immune response to the virus or a reactivation of the virus.
  • Subacute Thyroiditis: A self-limiting, virally induced inflammation of the thyroid characterised by a febrile illness and swelling of the thyroid, with subsequent damage to the thyroid tissue causing leakage of thyroid hormones into the circulation
  • Subacute sclerosing leukoencephalitis: A rare chronic form of brain inflammation that is associated with the measles virus. The patient usually appears to have a full recovery after the measles infection with symptoms developing usually between two and eight years after the infection. The condition tends to affect children and young adults mainly. The disease process involves the degeneration of the protective nerve sheaths (myelin) in the brain. Measles immunization is the most effective way of preventing the development of this complication of measles.
  • Swine flu: The Swine Flu is a respiratory viral disease which is usually found in pigs but can sometimes be transmitted to humans and cause epidemics or even pandemics. The viral strain involved is type A H1N1. The virus can be spread amongst humans from direct contact which can occur through coughing, sneezing or contamination of hands and surfaces. The severity of symptoms is highly variable, although with most people suffering only relatively mild symptoms. Patients are considered contagious for up to a week after the onset of symptoms but children may be contagious for longer periods of time.
  • Syphilis -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that the development of Syphilis during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Tanapox: A viral infection caused by the tanapox virus. The infection is most commonly associated with monkeys and other primates but can occur in humans. The main symptom are fever and headache with the development of skin lesions which regress spontaneously. Transmission is believed to occur through a break in the skin such as may occur when scratched or bitten by a monkey.
  • Tick-borne encephalitis: A viral infection (flavivirdae) of the central nervous system which is transmitted by ticks. Ticks usually feed on small rodents who are the main carriers of the virus. Transmission may also occur through the consumption of untreated milk. The incubation period is usually 1 to 2 weeks. The symptoms occur in two phases: the first involves symptoms of a general viral illness (fever, headache, nausea, aching muscles) followed by a period of remission and then central nervous system inflammation such as meningitis. However, many patients only suffer the first phase of the disease.
  • Togaviridae disease: Infection with any of a number of togaviridae viruses which can caused conditions such as Equine encephalitis, Ross River virus and Rubella virus. Symptoms are determined by the type of virus involved. Togaviridae are arboviruses and are transmitted by arthropods.
  • Tropical Spastic Paraparesis: A form of spastic partial paralysis of the lower limbs which occurs in the tropics
  • Tumours related to AIDS: It usually occurs due to decreased immunity.
  • Type 1 diabetes: Severe insulin-treated diabetes typically occurring in young people.
  • Type A Influenza: Type A influenza is a subtype of the influenza virus that can cause cause serious illness and result in pandemics. Influenza is viral respiratory infection. The virus is very contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. This frequent mutation means that people need regular vaccinations to ensure they are protected against new strains as they arise.
  • Type A influenza subtype H1: The H1 subtype of influenza is a strain of the type A influenza virus that can cause cause serious illness and result in pandemics. Influenza is viral respiratory infection. The virus is very contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. This frequent mutation means that people need regular vaccinations to ensure they are protected against new strains as they arise.
  • Type A influenza subtype H10N7: Influenza is viral respiratory infection. The virus is very contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. This frequent mutation means that people need regular vaccinations to ensure they are protected against new strains as they arise. Influenza A H10N7 is a subtype of influenza which rarely causes infection in human - only two cases of infectin have been reported.
  • Type A influenza subtype H1N1: The H1N1 subtype of influenza is a strain of the type A influenza virus that can cause illness in humans. Influenza is viral respiratory infection. The virus is contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The H1N1 subtype caused a pandemic called the Spanish Flu in 1918 and resulted in millions of deaths.
  • Type A influenza subtype H1N2: The H1N2 subtype of influenza is a strain of the type A influenza virus that can cause cause illness in humans. Influenza is viral respiratory infection. The virus is contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. This frequent mutation means that people need regular vaccinations to ensure they are protected against new strains as they arise.
  • Type A influenza subtype H2N2: The H2N2 subtype of influenza is a strain of the type A influenza virus that can cause cause illness in humans. Influenza is viral respiratory infection. The virus is very contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. This frequent mutation means that people need regular vaccinations to ensure they are protected against new strains as they arise.
  • Type A influenza subtype H3N2: The H3N2 subtype of influenza is a strain of the type A influenza virus that can cause cause illness in humans. Subtype H3N2 has caused a number of pandemics (e.g. Hong Kong Flu) and tends to occur in a seasonal pattern in many parts of the world. Influenza is viral respiratory infection. The virus is very contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. This frequent mutation means that people need regular vaccinations to ensure they are protected against new strains as they arise.
  • Type A influenza subtype H5: Influenza is viral respiratory infection. The virus is very contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. This frequent mutation means that people need regular vaccinations to ensure they are protected against new strains as they arise. Influenza A H5 is a subtype of influenza which can be further divided into subtypes e.g. H5N1.
  • Type A influenza subtype H5N1: Influenza is viral respiratory infection. The virus is very contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. This frequent mutation means that people need regular vaccinations to ensure they are protected against new strains as they arise. Influenza A H5N1 is a subtype of influenza that mainly infects birds but can be transmitted to humans. Infections were reported in Hong Kong in 1997 and in various parts of the world in 2003 - 2007.
  • Type A influenza subtype H7: Influenza is viral respiratory infection. The virus is very contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. This frequent mutation means that people need regular vaccinations to ensure they are protected against new strains as they arise. Influenza A H7 is a subtype of influenza which usually infects animals but can be transmitted to humans.
  • Type A influenza subtype H7N2: Influenza is viral respiratory infection. The virus is very contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. This frequent mutation means that people need regular vaccinations to ensure they are protected against new strains as they arise. Influenza A H7N2 is a subtype of influenza which has rarely infected humans. Infections were reported in New York in 2003 and in the UK in 2007.
  • Type A influenza subtype H7N3: Influenza is viral respiratory infection. The virus is very contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. This frequent mutation means that people need regular vaccinations to ensure they are protected against new strains as they arise. Influenza A H7N3 is a subtype of influenza which rarely infects humans. Infections were reported were reported in Canada in 2004.
  • Type A influenza subtype H7N7: Influenza is viral respiratory infection. The virus is very contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. This frequent mutation means that people need regular vaccinations to ensure they are protected against new strains as they arise. Influenza A H7N7 is a subtype of influenza which rarely infects humans. Infections were reported in the UK in 1996 and in the Netherlands in 2003.
  • Type A influenza subtype H9: Influenza is viral respiratory infection. The virus is very contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. This frequent mutation means that people need regular vaccinations to ensure they are protected against new strains as they arise. Influenza A H9 is a subtype of influenza which rarely causes infection in humans and tends to only cause mild illness.
  • Type A influenza subtype H9N2: Influenza is viral respiratory infection. The virus is very contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. This frequent mutation means that people need regular vaccinations to ensure they are protected against new strains as they arise. Influenza A H9N2 is a subtype of influenza which rarely causes infection in humans. A small number of cases occurred in China and Hong Kong in 1999 and 2003 and 2007.
  • Type B Influenza: Type B influenza is a subtype of the influenza virus that tends to occur sporadically - can cause epidemics but not pandemics. Influenza is viral respiratory infection. The virus is very contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. This frequent mutation means that people need regular vaccinations to ensure they are protected against new strains as they arise.
  • Type C Influenza: Type C influenza is a subtype of the influenza virus that only rarely infects people and tends to only cause mild illness. It is not known to cause epidemics or pandemics. Influenza is viral respiratory infection.
  • Vaccinia: A cowpox virus that was initially used for human smallpox vaccines.
  • Vaccinia keratitis: Vaccinia keratitis is an eye condition that occurs when the cornea is exposed to the smallpox virus. This exposure is most likely to occur when a person rubs their eyes after handling or bathing a recently vaccinated child. Symptoms may be severe and permanent damage to vision may result.
  • Varicella -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that the development of Varicella during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Varicella virus antenatal infection: The infection of a mother with the varicella virus whilst she is pregnant
  • Varicella zoster: A highly contagious disease caused by herpes virus 3
  • Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that the development of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis: A mosquito-borne virus that usually affects horses and related animals but may also infect humans. Young, weak and old people may become very sick and in some cases death can occur. It occurs in Central and South America. The incubation period is 2-5 days. The period of illness is usually 3-8 days but relapses are possible.
  • Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers: Viral infections causing hemorrhagic fever (i.e. bleeding)
  • Viral Hepatitis: hepatitis describes inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis may be caused by alcohol, drugs, autoimmune diseases, metabolic diseases, and viruses. Viral infection accounts for more than half the cases of acute hepatitis.
  • Viral digestive infections: Any virus that infects the gastrointestinal tract causing a medical condition
  • Viral dysentery: Contagious epidemic viral form of dysentery.
  • Viral exanthema: Viral exanthema is a widespread skin rash triggered by a viral infection. These rashes are more common in children than adults. The rashes are usually not itchy.
  • Viral gastroenteritis: Virus causing gastroenteritis of digestive tract.
  • Viral meningitis: Viral meningitis refers to meningitis caused by a viral infection
  • Viral pericarditis: Inflammation and swelling of the pericardium (fibrous sac surrounding the heart) that results from a viral infection. Causative viruses include HIV, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses and adenoviruses. The condition may be misdiagnosed as a heart attack and vice versa.
  • Viral prostatitis: Acute prostatitis almost always results from an infection. Infections that cause prostatitis are often bacterial. They are rarely fungal, viral, or protozoal.
  • Viral vasculitis not HBV and HCV: Blood vessel inflammation due to a viral infection such as cytomegalovirus or immune reaction initiated by a viral infection. Blood vessels in virtually any part of the body may be infected including the brain and the heart. Symptoms depend on the location and extent of the inflammation.
  • Viremia: The presence of a virus in the bloodstream. The symptoms will depend on the type of virus involved. Some viruses cause no symptoms.
  • Virus associated hemophagocytic syndrome: A fulminant condition characterised by viral infection causing multiple organ infiltrates of haemophagocytic histiocytes.
  • Virus-induced asthma: Virus-induced asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is triggered by a viral respiratory infection. This form of asthma usually has a sudden onset and is relatively severe. Viral respiratory infections can also exacerbate existing asthma symptoms.
  • Warts: Lumpy growths under the skin
  • West Nile fever: Mosquito-borne infectious virus.
  • West nile encephalitis: A virus that is of the Flavivirus genus that causes the condition West Nile encephalitis
  • Western equine encephalitis: An infectious disease caused by an arbovirus (Alphavirus - Togaviraidae) and transmitted by infected mosquitoes. The infection primarily attacks that central nervous system and severity can range from asymptomatic to severe complications and even death in rare cases.
  • Western/Eastern/California encephalitis: A mosquito born virus transmitted to humans and sometimes horses.
  • Wyatt disease: A cytomegalus virus infection that occurs before birth.
  • Yabapox: A viral infection caused by the poxvirus. The infection is most commonly associated with monkeys and other primates but can occur in humans. The main symptom is the development of harmless tumors under the skin which disappear spontaneously in a month or so.
  • Yellow fever: A viral infection transmitted by mosquito bites which can damage various organs such as the liver, heart, kidney and digestive tract.

 

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