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Glossary for Water-Electrolyte Imbalance

  • Achor-Smith syndrome: A dietary deficiency disorder involving low blood potassium levels which leads to other problems such as diarrhea, anemia, muscle wasting and kidney problems.
  • Beer-drinker syndrome: Symptoms that can occur when large amounts of beer is consumed with little or no food.
  • Blood conditions: Conditions that affect the blood
  • Blum's syndrome: A syndrome characterized by low blood sodium levels and increased blood urea levels that is not due to kidney problems.
  • Burnett's milk drinker's syndrome: Burnett's milk drinker's syndrome is a condition where the body is too alkaline and the blood contains too much calcium which results in impaired kidney function. It can be caused by drinking large quantities of milk or using too many alkaline antacid remedies. High vitamin D intake can make the condition worse. The people most at risk of this condition tend to be older people (especially women) who are taking calcium supplements as well as calcium carbonate containing remedies to treat dyspepsia.
  • Burnett's syndrome: Burnett's syndrome is a condition where the body is too alkaline and the blood contains too much calcium which results in impaired kidney function. It can be caused by drinking large quantities of milk or using too many alkaline antacid remedies. High vitamin D intake can make the condition worse. The people most at risk of this condition tend to be older people (especially women) who are taking calcium supplements as well as calcium carbonate containing remedies to treat dyspepsia.
  • Central pontine myelinolysis: A rare condition where the protective layer around brainstem nerve cells is destroyed which prevents nerve signals being transmitted properly. It generally occurs in response to a rapid change in sodium levels in the body which can be caused by treatment of various conditions or by various conditions that cause rapid sodium level changes.
  • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia -- sodium-wasting form: A group of disorder that occur when a deficiency of 21-hydroxylase impairs the normal process of making adrenal corticosteroids - a severe deficiency of 21-hydroxylase causing salt-wasting which is potentially fatal.
  • Decrease anion gap: A decrease in the difference between calculated serum anions and cations
  • Decreased bicarbonate: A decrease in the amount of bicarbonate in the blood
  • Dehydration: Loss of fluids in the body
  • Dilutional hyponatremia: Low sodium levels due to excessive fluids.
  • Disequilibrium syndrome: A complication that can occur during or after dialysis and probably caused by abnormal water balance within the brain. Swelling of the brain causes a range of neurological symptoms.
  • East Syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation, deafness, ataxia and electrolyte imbalance.
  • Electrolyte abnormality: An imbalance in the level of any of a number of chemicals (electrolytes) in the blood stream e.g. chloride, sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, phosphate and bicarbonate. Symptoms can vary depending on which electrolyte is involved and the severity of the imbalance - severe cases can readily lead to death. An electrolyte abnormality can be caused by such things excessive loss of body fluid through vomiting or diarrhea, kidney conditions, malabsorption and various drugs such as diuretics and chemotherapy drugs.
  • Fanconi syndrome: Fanconi syndrome that occurs secondary to the accumulation of crystals of light-chain immunoglobulin molecules in the kidney tubules which affects their functioning.
  • Franek-Bocker-Kahlen syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by a small head, brain defect, spasticity and high sodium level.
  • Gitelman syndrome: A rare, relatively mild, genetic kidney disorder that causes hypokalemia. The defective gene (NCCT) impairs the function of the Na-Cl cotransporter.
  • Heat cramps: Muscle cramps related to exertion
  • Hereditary primary Fanconi disease: A rare inherited disorder characterized by defective reabsorption of various substances such as phosphate, potassium, amino acids and glucose which manifests as a wide range of abnormalities and problems.
  • Hyperkalemia: The excess of potassium in the blood
  • Hypermagnesemia: Increased blood plasma levels of magnesium above the normal upper limit (above 1.1mmol/L), see also Magnesium Overdose
  • Hypernatremia: Increased blood sodium levels. Can be caused by excessive sodium levels but is more often a result of low water levels in the body.
  • Hypertensive hypokalemia familial: A rare inherited form of high blood pressure. The high blood pressure is due to a kidney tubule abnormality results in too much sodium being reabsorbed into the blood stream instead of being excreted.
  • Hypocalcemia, autosomal dominant: A dominantly inherited disorder of phosphate and calcium metabolism which results in low blood calcium levels. The severity of the condition is highly variable with some patients being asymptomatic.
  • Hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, familial: An inherited benign disorder of calcium metabolism which results in high blood calcium levels and low urine calcium levels. The condition is generally asymptomatic and the abnormality is discovered accidentally during blood tests.
  • Hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, familial, type 1: Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia is an inherited benign disorder of calcium metabolism which results in high blood calcium levels and low urine calcium levels. The condition is generally asymptomatic and the abnormality is discovered incidentally during blood tests. Subtype 2 involves a genetic defect on chromosome 3q13.3-q21.
  • Hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, familial, type 2: Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia is an inherited benign disorder of calcium metabolism which results in high blood calcium levels and low urine calcium levels. The condition is generally asymptomatic and the abnormality is discovered incidentally during blood tests. Subtype 1 involves a genetic defect on chromosome 19p13.3
  • Hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, familial, type 3: Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia is an inherited benign disorder of calcium metabolism which results in high blood calcium levels and low urine calcium levels. The condition is generally asymptomatic and the abnormality is discovered incidentally during blood tests. Subtype 31 involves a genetic defect on chromosome 19q13. Bone strength problems may occur in some patients in the later stages of life.
  • Hypokalemia: Low levels of potassium in the body.
  • Hypomagnesemia 4, renal: A recessively inherited kidney disorder resulting in low blood magnesium levels due to its excessive excretion by the kidneys. This form of hypomagnesemia involves normal urinary and serum levels of calcium.
  • Hypomagnesemia caused by selective magnesium malabsorption: A rare genetic disorder which causes low blood magnesium and results in low calcium levels also. Death can occur if left untreated. The condition is believed to results from abnormal intestinal absorption of magnesium rather than the excessive secretion of magnesium via malfunctioning kidneys.
  • Hypomagnesemia primary: Low blood magnesium levels which is caused by the abnormal absorption and excretion of the mineral and can be caused by such things as kidney problems and intestinal malabsorption.
  • Hypomagnesemia with hypocalciuria: An inherited kidney defect which results in low blood magnesium levels and low urine calcium levels. All other electrolyte levels appear to be normal.
  • Hyponatremia: An electrolyte disturbance involving low sodium levels in the blood. Symptoms are determined by the degree of imbalance. Very low sodium levels can cause water intoxication which can be very dangerous.
  • Hypophosphatemia: Low blood phosphate levels. Causes include malnourishment, chronic alcoholism excessive carbohydrate consumption, malabsorption, phosphaturia, liver failure, respiratory alkalosis and certain genetic disorders.
  • Hypophosphatemia, Familial: An inherited disorder involving low blood phosphate levels due to problems with the transport of phosphate and problems with vitamin D metabolism. Vitamin D and phosphates are not properly absorbed from the kidneys which can lead to bone problems if not treated.
  • Idiopathic edema: A condition involving salt retention that isn't a result of impaired heart, kidney or liver function.
  • Magnesium wasting renal: A rare genetic syndrome characterized mainly by excessive loss of magnesium in the urine due to kidney problems.
  • Meier-Blumberg-Imahorn syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by high urine calcium level and eye problems.
  • Microcephaly brain defect spasticity hypernatremia: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by a small head, brain defect, spasticity and high sodium level.
  • Milk poisoning: Milk poisoning is a condition where the body is too alkaline and the blood contains too much calcium. It can be caused by drinking large quantities of milk or using too many alkaline antacid remedies. High vitamin D intake can make the condition worse. The people most at risk of this condition tend to be older people (especially women) who are taking calcium supplements as well as calcium carbonate containing remedies to treat dyspepsia.
  • Milk-Alkali syndrome: Milk-Alkali syndrome is a condition where the body is too alkaline and the blood contains too much calcium which results in impaired kidney function. It can be caused by drinking large quantities of milk or using too many alkaline antacid remedies. High vitamin D intake can make the condition worse. The people most at risk of this condition tend to be older people (especially women) who are taking calcium supplements as well as calcium carbonate containing remedies to treat dyspepsia.
  • Pseudohypoaldosteronism: A group of disorders involving an electrolyte imbalance due to the kidney's inability to respond to aldosterone. The actual level of aldosterone may range from high to low.
  • Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1: A rare condition characterized by electrolyte disorders caused by the kidney's inability to respond to aldosterone. Type 1 is differentiated from type II in that it involves sodium wasting.
  • Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1, autosomal dominant: A rare condition characterized by electrolyte disorders caused by the kidney's inability to respond to mineralocorticoids. Type 1 is differentiated from type II in that it involves sodium wasting. There are two forms of type 1: an autosomal recessive form which tends to be more severe than the autosomal dominant form. The recessive form tends to persist into adulthood whereas the dominant form is milder and symptoms tend to improve with age.
  • Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1, autosomal recessive: A rare condition characterized by electrolyte disorders caused by the kidney's inability to respond to mineralocorticoids. Type 1 is differentiated from type II in that it involves sodium wasting. There are two forms of type 1: an autosomal recessive form which tends to be more severe than the autosomal dominant form. The recessive form tends to persist into adulthood whereas the dominant form is milder and symptoms tend to improve with age.
  • Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II: A rare condition characterized by electrolyte disorders caused by the kidney's inability to respond to aldosterone. Type II is differentiated from Type I in that sodium wasting doesn't occur.
  • Renal Magnesium Wasting -- hypercalciuria -- nephrocalcinosis -- Ocular disorders: A rare form of progressive kidney disease associated with eye problems.
  • Renal failure-like electrolyte imbalances: impairment in the level of electrolytes in the body
  • SIADH: Inappropriate release of Antidiuretic hormone, resulting in fluid retention.
  • Schroeder syndrome 1: High blood pressure and reduced salt concentration in sweat associated with an overactive adrenal cortex which is involved with hormone production.
  • Seizures, Sensorineural Deafness, Ataxia, Mental Retardation, and Electrolyte Imbalance: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation, deafness, ataxia and electrolyte imbalance.
  • Severe fluid retention:
  • Volume depletion: When an individual does not have enough fluid volume in there circulation
  • WDHA syndrome: A syndrome characterized by watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and achlorhydria.

 

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